Using the technique of boiling to cook food is one that has become widespread among the kitchen techniques.

It is particularly preferred in beef, veal, chicken, fish and vegetables. The purpose of boiling is to maintain the aroma of foods, make their digestion easier and be safe in terms of their nutritional value.

First the water is boiled then the desired food in placed in the boiling water, the heat is reduced and the food is boiled for a certain time. The heat must not be very high. Otherwise if the what is boiling too violently meat will get hard and vegetables will crumble. Since the vitamins of the boiled food pass to the water and the boiling water is flavorful it should not be thrown away.

When a variety of spices are added to the boiling water different soups of sauces can be created. Many vegetables can be stored in the deep freeze after a short time of boiling. Also after the vegetables and fruits have been boiled dip hem in cold water and then you can use them to cook the next time without boiling.

This is a very sensitive cooking process that is done in carefully monitored temperatures between 65° and 80°C.

This is the process of cooking with dry or moist steam with or without pressure.

Frying is a process in which foods are cooked in increasing or set temperatures of hot oil.
This is divided into 2 groups called deep frying and frying in a little oil.
The oil that will be used for frying must be clear, neutral flavor, without residue and light.
It should not be dense or runny and should not cause a lot of smoke when it reaches high temperatures. There should be no souring in oil and refined oil should be used.
No new oil should be added to hot oil. The proper frying temperature is between 200 and 250 degrees.

This is a method that is often used to cook small or thinly cut foods quickly. If you are using a non-stick pan you do not need to add oil. But if you do not have this type of pan add a tablespoon of oil. By constantly stirring while cooking you prevent the essential juices of the food from being released and protect the nutritional element.

Food is cooked without adding fluid or a very small amount added in its own juices.

Grilling is based on the principle of holding foods against direct heat to cook equally. In order to make sure that foods get enough heat to cook you should cook each side for 3-5 minutes. In open air it is important to make sure that the coal has reached an ember stage and that the foods do not touch the coal.

Food is cooked by heating only from above.


Meat products, dough, vegetables-fruits and fish are baked in an oven. Each type of food has its own unique cooking temperature and these temperatures vary according to the features of the food. Therefore the oven must first be set at a suitable temperature according to the type of food. The baking temperature changes according to the ingredient between 150 and 250 degrees. It is possible for you to cook food in the oven with dry air with less oil. If you do not want the food you cook to be overly crispy you can cover it and if you want it to be crispy you can leave it uncovered. The best part about cooking in the oven is that you don’t need to add oil. In order to prevent the small amount of oil you have applied from burning your can place a wire grill between the food and the bottom of the pan. Foods cooks with fat and juices contained in them therefore they do not lose any flavor.

Making a roast is using dry heat at medium temperature to cook food by basting regularly and cooking uncovered.
Roasting in fat; cooking the food at low heat in fat, uncovered and without adding juice.

The process of cooking food covered in the oven or in a pressure cooker with a small amount of fluid.

The purpose of this method is to maintain the shape of the food. The feature of poaching, which is also known as a moist-wet cooking technique, is that food is cooked partially in water and partially in steam in a shallow receptacle. For example; place water in a covered pot (meat broth, chicken broth, fish broth). Place the food (especially egg or fish) halfway in the water. Then close the cover so that part cooks in the water and part in the steam. In this technique;

  • When poaching always put a bit of acid like vinegar, lemon juice or wine is the cooking liquid to keep the food from falling apart.
  • By adding onion and fresh aromatic herbs to the fluid it can be used later to make sauce. (After cooking the food very briefly in the fluid remove it. Then increase the heat and reduce the fluid by half and strain. Add butter to this fluid and whisk constantly to achieve a sauce.).
  • Poaching temperature should be 80⁰C. Eggs are the most common food cooked by poaching. One of the dishes for which we use poaching which is very healthy and delicious is “çılbır”. Also fish and chicken can be cooked by poaching.

Glazing (SHINING)
This technique is not used much in Turkish cuisine but is common in world cuisine. It is the method of applying reduced juices of the food to the outer surface of the food (chicken, turkey, beef, lamb and some vegetables).


Points to be Aware of When Choosing a Knife

  • It must be long-life. The quality should be good.
  • All knives and knife sets should be made of stainless steel.
  • The handles should be ergonomic. Handles are made from plastic or polycarbonate.
  • Every chef should have their own knife bag or box.

Every chef should have the following equipment

  • A vegetable peeler
  • A vegetable knife
  • A chef’s fork
  • A chopping knife (chef’s knife)
  • A steel spatula
  • Other than those listed they could also have a fragmenting knife, a fish knife, a fish filleting knife, a spatula, decorating device, mandolin (chips cutter) and thermometer.


  • Peeling Knives
    Knives in various shapes for peeling vegetables.
  • A Vegetable Knife
    Knives with a 7-10 cm blade. Used in preparing vegetables and fruit and decorating.
  • Chopping Knife
    Knives with a blade of 18 to 20 cm used for slicing and chopping vegetables and fruit.
  • Stripping Knife
    Knives mostly used by butchers to separate the meat from the bone with a pointed tip that widens to a handle that could be curved.
  • Fillet Knife
    Knives 18-20cm in length that are thin an flexible used to carve fillet shapes from products.
  • Chef’s Knife
    A sturdy multifunctional knife.
  • Serrated knife
    A knife 25-30 cm long that is narrow with a serrated edge. Generally used in delicate products and for cutting bread.
    There are other knives for more specific uses like décor sets, oyster knives, Parisian spoons, cleavers, seed removers, meat forks, scissors and tweezers.



    Cooking starts with designing the work that is going to be done. The taste of the food is as important as the appearance. Knowing how foods are going to look on the plate ahead of time enables you to achieve definite results. This is why standardized cutting techniques are used. The cutting of foods should be done as close to cooking time as possible.
    Mire Poix is a cutting technique in which all parts are cut randomly. The morsels are big enough to be 3-4 pieces to a spoon.
    (2 onions, 1 celery, 1 carrot, 1 leek)
    The finer version of Mire poix. It is used in crushed, strained soups and sauces. It is also the coarser version of Jardin chopping style. There are 8-10 pieces in a spoonful. Raw and cooked meat can also be cut with this method.
    Cutting in thin 3-4 cm long strips about as wide as a knife edge. This method which is used in all kinds of vegetables involves cutting in long thin strips. Cutting onions in the “piyaz” style is an example of this.
    This chopping method has two names. It is the method of chopping blade thin on both surfaces of 1 cm. All pieces are the same size. All vegetables can be cut with this method. Used in consommés, for garnish vegetables and in salads.
    The random cut of paysanne. Vegetables and meat that is desired to quick fast in dishes are cut with this method.
    The style of cutting in half centimeter sections 4-5 cm in length in rectangular prism shapes. French fries are done this way. Celery, red beets, carrot and potato are suitable vegetables for this method. Also used for decoration.
    The style of cutting wider that Paysanne in round shapes of knife edge thickness. Carrot, courgette and cucumber is usually cut this way. Used in salads with thin slices of carrot, courgette and cucumber and in decoration.
  • Square 20x20x20mm/li>
  • Parmentiere 12x12x12mm
  • Macedoine6x6x6mm
  • Brunoise 3x3x3mm
  • Mirepoix, rough chop
  • Mirepoix, rough chop
  • Mirepoix, rough
  • Grated (paille)1mm stick
  • Julienne3x3x50mm
  • Alumette 3x3x50mm stick
  • Batonnette 6x6x80mm stick
  • Frite 12x12x80mm stick
  • Pont neuf 20x20x80 stick
  • Mignonnette 9x9x50mm stick
  • chip 3mm daire dilim (cips okunur)
  • chip 3mm circle slice
  • Rondelle3mm
  • Fondante 80mm
  • Chateau 50x60mm
  • Olivette 25-35mm


  • All Chicken Dishes:
    Chicken can be made baked, boiled, stuffed, grilled and fried.

  • Chicken Drumstick Dishes:
    Chicken drumstick dishes include baked drumsticks, fried drumsticks and grilled drumsticks.

  • Chicken Wing Dishes:
    The most popular is grilled chicken wings. Also wings are baked and fried.

  • Chicken Thigh Dishes:
    Chicken thighs are boiled, fried and grilled.

  • Chicken Breast Dishes:
    Chicken breast dessert, boiled chicken breast, grilled chicken breast, chicken breast soups and fried chicken breast is made.


  • Chicken meat is a quickly perishable food. It must be stored in hygienic conditions until it reaches the final user.
  • Chicken meat should not be cut on a wooden cutting board. Unlike red meat, it is not resistant to micro organisms and should be cut on a marble or plastic cutting board.
  • Chicken meat should be consumed in 1 day at the latest after being purchased and refrigerated. If it is not going to be consumed right away it should be cleaned, wrapped in foil and left in the deep freeze. Meat that is stored this way can be kept for up to 3 months at–18 ºC.
  • Chicken that has been deep frozen and stored properly will maintain its nutritional value and be safe.
  • Fresh chicken has moist light colored skin, the breast meat is full and the tip of the breast bone is flexible.
  • Cleaned fresh chicken can be wrapped loosely and stored in the refrigerator for 2 days at the most.
  • After chicken has been thawed out it cannot be frozen again.
  • If you are going to freeze chicken you should use foil instead of plastic.
  • Before cooking chicken should be brought to room temperature and after it is washed the inside should be dried with a paper towel.


The immature sheep is called a lamb up to one year. Suckling lamb is butchered at 1-2 months. Therefore their weight varies from 7 to 15 kg.
There is no flavor difference between the meat of male and female lamb, but females are preferred for being fattier. Lamb meat is known for being pinkish with white fat and bone and the meat is a dark pink that is fine and firm. Lamb slaughtering can go from January to the end of May. Suckling lamb cooks very quickly but lambs that reach 15-20 kg require more time to cook. Large lambs can be found any season. A lamb that is 28-30 kg when live yields 14-15 kg of meat.


Since the neck, rump and belly portions of a cow are more mobile they are more muscular and tough compared to the other parts. The portions that are further away from the neck, rump and belly are the softest and therefore most expensive part of beef. Beef is sold by butchers in the following sections depending on what they are to be used for: The neck, flank, brisket and shoulder portions are tougher because they are more mobile parts of the animal and are mostly used for ground beef.

Round, counter round and bodigo (rump) portions are suitable for eating boiled. The topside and thick flank section of beef is used a meat. The rib, chuck and sirloin parts are the softer portions and therefore are ideal for grilling. Veal and beef is stored in lose wrapping. Small chunks of meat and ground beef spoils easily. Thawed meat should be used right away and never refrozen. If necessary to store meat for a long time it should be kept in a freezer or deep freeze.


Fish are among the most easily spoiled foods. If it is not fresh it will have a bad taste and smell. When fish is bought it should be cooked in a short time and should not be stored very long. It should be cleaned thoroughly before placing in a pan of before freezing to be used next time. Not all fish need to be descaled. The scales of fish do not need to be removed for grilling and baking in the oven. Filets are obtained from fish that is cleaned and ready to be cooked. Proper filleting knives need to be used to filet fish. There is a special filleting knife which is smaller and slipperier than normal knives to use for wide filleting.

How do you pick out fresh fish?

  • The eyes of fish should be shiny with a light clear cornea layer.
  • Scales should be shiny and iridescent, the skin should be well adhered and the meat should be hard and elastic.
  • The gills should be hard, stuck to the head and a lively red color.


  • Grilled:
    Large oily fish should be selected, otherwise they will stick to the grill. Both side should be scratched with the knife to avoid cracking while cooking. Too cook faster the fish can also be cut up and placed on skewers.

  • Fried:
    Large fish should be fried in slices and small fish should be fired whole. Lightly floured fish is more flavorful and won’t stick to the pan. The fish to be fried should be thoroughly cleaned and dried with paper towel.

  • Shallow Frying:
    In the shallow frying technique a small amount of oil is placed in a non-stick pan. The fish must cook on a very thin layer of oil.

  • Baked:
    Cooking in the oven involves placing the fish with vegetables in an oven plate and baking at a medium heat like 180.

  • Roast:
    Cooking in a high heated oven without anything added. When cooked right the outer layer of the fish is crispy and the inside is juicy.

  • Sautéed:
    After lightly greasing the inside of a thick non-stick pan and heating the fish filets are cooked 2 minutes on each side.


The most suitable fish in this season it terms of oiliness are gray mullet and anchovies. Mackerel, bluefish, bonito and scad maintain their flavor. It is easy to find young bluefish, large bluefish and haddock. Also mullet and gurnard is heavily fished. Red mullet, swordfish and bream is fished less.
The Turbot season that starts in February continues till the end of May. Mullet is plentiful. Mackerel, bluefish and bonito start to lose their fat. Grey mullet continues to be tasty.
The tastiest time for grey mullet, sea bass and turbot. Mackerel has become dried out and the bluefish and bonito have lost their fat so they can be cooked fried or oven baked form. Large bluefish can be grilled. Red mullet is delicious.
The most plentiful time for turbot. Bream, sea bass, swordfish and gurnard is plentiful. This is why they are more affordable compared to other months. However swordfish is not very tasty. “gürnüş” fish, grey mullet, haddock, and red mullet are heavily fished. Meagre is seen in this month.
Bass, red mullet, sole, mullet swordfish and scorpion fish are enjoyed. It is possible to find them all in the market because they are plentiful. Mackerel, bonito, anchovies and scad have lost their fat but grey mullet is tasty.
Fish is caught less in June. Since the bottom fish have hatched they move dispersed. This is why it is an unproductive month for fishing. Mullet, red mullet, bream and meager can be found but it is expensive.
Sardines start in this season and continue to the middle of October, shad and mackerel is good for frying and boiling. Mullet and red mullet is tasty but grey mullet is not.
The gypsy bonito season starts. They are the size of mackerel or a little bigger. This is the tastiest time for sardines. There is no getting enough of delicious sword fish in August and picarel is very tasty. Grey mullet is not recommended.
Sardines and swordfish is tasty. Bonito has gotten larger and is suitable to cook any style. Bluefish is expensive this season but scad and gurnard are plentiful.
The season when temporary fish feed in the Black Sea and migrate to the Marmara Sea. This is why they are plentiful. Mackerel is especially in season. Bluefish has just gotten its flavor and scad has gained its fat. Bonito is plentiful. Mullet, red mullet, swordfish, bass, bream, sardines, meager, bonito and picarel are affordable.
The best time for mackerel. The bonito flow has started. This is the month that flounder is most delicious. All of the fish available and tasty in October is also good in November.
Mackerel, bluefish and bonito has become fatty therefore they can be prepared any way. Anchovies are tasty. Mullet is readily available.


  • Take the fish intestines out. Take care not to disrupt the gall bladder during this process, if it is penetrated it will make the meat bitter.
  • From the tail to the head cut the belly section with a scissors.
  • Thoroughly wash the fish under running water and dry with a paper towel or cloth.
  • Scrape the fish in the opposite direction to the scales starting from the tail to the head.
  • With the help of scissors cut the fish’s gills.
  • Pull the gills up an out then remove them.
  • Stick the knife in the back diagonal fins until you reach the spine. Turn the knife towards the tail. Advance towards the tail fins and thus cut out your first filet.
  • Turn the fish over and repeat the same process for the second filet.
  • Put the filets together and clean the bones on the surface with the help of tweezers.
  • To remove the skin place the filet on a cutting board with the skin side down.
  • Stick a sharp knife between the skin and tail and start to move up towards the other end holding the knife firmly to separate the skin from the meat.
  • Cut the edges of sole with well sharpened scissors.
  • Use paper towel or a cloth to hold the skin better and hold the skin between your thumb and index finger starting at the tail.
  • Pull the skin with a firm decisive action.
  • Do the same process to remove the bottom white skin and place the sole on a cutting board and cut following the spine.
  • Slide carefully over the bone until you take out the first filet.
  • Using the same technique remove the second filet and apply the same process to the bottom part.


  • Dough:
    Turkish; hamur, English; dough, French; pate and Italian; pasta. The main ingredient is flour. The yeast, milk, water, oil (butter, olive oil) and other ingredients that are added undergo a form change and become bread, macaroni, noodles, cookies and muffins.

  • Gluten:
    Whether the dough is hard or soft is adjusted by the gluten content. The more the gluten content is in a flour the more elastic the dough is. The gluten that is created by the proteins that do not dissolve in water come forth in the processing style of the dough. The rate of gluten in soft wheat flours is less than that of gluten in hard wheat flours. Macaronis made with soft wheat flours have a greater possibility of mixing into the water and macaronis made with these flours can stick together.

  • Kneading:
    When the gluten in dough emerges in correct proportion with kneading, however much the dough is kneaded it is that much more flexible. Kneading in the traditional sense is kneading by hand. One of the conveniences provided to us by present technology is kitchen machines. With advanced apparatus in machines that handle all kinds of kneading processes it is easy to knead dough.

  • Methods for making leavened dough:
    To make leavened dough one of 2 methods is selected; either the straight dough method or the sponge method. Then punching down, portioning and proofing is done to prepare the dough for cooking.

  • Single stage dough preparation:
    Classic dough prepared by combining, yeast, water, flour, salt, etc. together.

  • Yeast:
    Made up of beneficial bacteria which leaven dough. When salt, sugar or boiling water come into direct contact it loses its function.

  • Dual stage dough preparation:
    First the yeast is combined with all wet ingredients and half the flour. The dough is set aside to rise. In the second stage the flour, oil if any, salt and sugar are added. It is kneaded and set aside to rise again. Thus a lighter dough is achieved.

  • Kneading:
    this method of punching the dough is done by folding the dough again and kneading. Doing this removes the gases and gluten is created to make a more elastic dough.

  • Portioning:
    After the kneading process the dough is portioned and then set aside to rest. The purpose of this is to make sure the dough rises equally.

  • Provision:
    The leavening process at 21-39 degrees before cooking.


  • Bagel:
    A type of food unique to Jews. The ring shaped bread is usually used at breakfast. It can contain fruit according to taste.

  • Bolillo:
    A Mexican sandwich bread.

  • Grisini:
    Italian bread sticks. Usually used as an appetizer before dinner.

  • Challah:
    A Jewish bread. Made with egg and butter.

  • Ciabata:
    Italian village bread.

  • Cor grain bread:
    A Jewish bread.

  • Croissante:
    A French breakfast bread made with layers of dough.

  • Crumpet:
    Leavened muffins. Served in England with butter, jam or cheese. Should be moistened before eating.

  • Dreikornbrot:
    A German bread made with rye flour.

  • Baguette:
    A thick crust French bread.

  • Italian bread:
    Thick crusted like French bread. It is the classic Italian bread.

  • Rye Bread:
    A type of bread made from rye in Europe.

  • Sourdough bread:
    A type of sour yeast dough. Consumed with seafood.

  • Pishi:
    Prepared by frying a leavened dough in oil.

  • Katmer:
    A type of pastry cooked in oil or on an iron pan.

  • Trabzon bread:
    A leavened bread cooked in stone ovens in a wood fire.


The Importance of Stocks and Soups in the Kitchen

Stocks are achieved by boiling bones, meat and vegetables. Sometimes milk, oil and other nutrients are used as stock. The stock obtained from bone and meat is called bouillon. It is the main fluid of sauces, soups and dishes. Stocks are closely relevant to the quality of the soup and sauce.

Stocks vary according to where they are used. While they provide flavor and appearance to the prepared food they also increase the nutritional value. For example the use of chicken stock in cream of chicken soup increases the quality, flavor and nutrition of the soup. The use of chicken stock in fish soup confuses the flavor. This shows the inexperience of the person making the soup. The same is true for sauces and dishes. It is important that the right stock is used for the right dish.


  • Brown Stocks “fond brun”:
    Brown stocks are made from beef bones and meat. Bones are fried with bones, vegetables and oil and tomato paste and seasonings are added. First the bones are roasted in the oven until they are browned and then they are added to the other ingredients.

  • Roast:
    When the meat being roasted (cooking a large piece of meat in the oven) is close to being done mire-poix, herbs and spices are added. When the meat is cooked it is removed and tomato paste and water is added and it is boiled for 1-2 hours, strained and the achieved product is called fond’a jus de roti.

  • Grand jus:
    Demi glace sauce is prepared, strained and the remaining portion has water added to it and then it is boiled for 1-2 hours.

  • Game animals stock:
    Brown stock can be prepared from beef bones and meat as well as game. The only difference is that game animals bones and meat are used.

  • White Stocks “fond blanc”:
    While preparing white stock beef meat and bones are used with seasonings. The difference from other stocks is that the bones and other ingredients are not roasted. They are boiled and strained. If the bones are dirty or have been waiting than blanching is definitely done.

  • Blanching “pre-boiling”:
    Dirty bones are first washed. Then they are place in a pan and boiled. The prepared bones are thrown into the boiling water. After coming to a boil they are removed and placed in cold water. If necessary the process is repeated. The purpose is to remove unwanted dirt and smells.

  • Chicken stock:
    The difference from beef stock is that chicken bones, necks, wings, herbs and spices are used. All of the ingredients are boiled for 2-3 hours and strained. When there aren’t enough chicken bones a bit of veal bone can be added.

  • Fish stock:
    Prepared with the bones and head of large non fatty fish, white mire-poix, herbs and spices. After all of the ingredients are cooked for 2-3 hours they are strained and used. Fish stock is only used in fish soup, fish dishes and sauces.

  • Vegetable Stocks:
    Vegetables stocks are prepared using any vegetables that are in season. While preparing this stock the vegetable that is going to be prepared is emphasized in the stock. Herbs and seasonings that are suitable for the type of vegetable are selected. The boiling time varies according to the type of vegetable. Vegetable stock is especially good for soups, dishes and sauces for vegetarians.

Principles for Making Stock

  • Groups of vegetables that add flavor and taste are prepared. (bouquette garnis, mire-poix).
  • Herbs and spices are prepared (peppercorn, herbs, garlic, thyme and parsley).
  • If the bones have been set aside they should be blanched.
  • Stocks are cooked uncovered over low heat for a long time. Otherwise the nutritional value and flavor is reduced.
  • Storing Stocks:
    The stocks and bouillons that are prepared can be stored short term and long term for use later. Because it takes so long to prepare stocks and bouillons they are prepared in large amounts. The excess is stored in various forms.

  • Cold Storage:
    After the prepared stocks and bouillons are strained they can be used wherever you wish. If they are to be used soon stocks and bouillon can be cooled and stored. Cooling is done at room temperature in a wide container. Then it can be placed into suitable containers and kept in a cold room or refrigerator at +2, +5ºC for one day.

  • Storing by Thickening “Glace de viande”:
    The portion of the bouillon not being used is placed in a wide pan and left to boil at low heat. The boiling process is continued until the bouillon is reduced by 1/8. It is then cooled at room temperature. The bouillon is placed in one portion containers. The description and date is written on the packages and they are placed in the freezer at -32 °C. They can be stored for up to 6 months in the freezer at -18 °C.

The Principles for Storing and Using Stock and Bouillon

  • Package stocks and bouillon in single use containers with the description and date written on them in hygienic containers
  • Do not take from the freezer and place directly on the stove.
  • If they need to be used urgently you can thaw it on low heat.

For 2 liters of stock (2 kg beef bone, 4 liters water, ½ kg vegetable onion, carrot, celery, leek, thyme, parsley, bay leaf) 10 peppercorns, 6 types of spices, salt)

Break the bones with marrow. Blanch them. Place in a pot. Add the vegetables and cold water and bring to a boil. Once it boils skim the fat. Boil on low heat for 5-6 hours. Shortly before removing from heat add salt. If vegetables are used instead of bones it is called vegetable stock, if chicken meat and bones are used it is called chicken stock, if fish heads and bones are used it is called fish stock and if game animal bones and meat are used it is called game animal stock.

For 5–6 liters (5 kg beef bone, 75 g butter, 8 liters water, 100 g Mirepoix, 2 bay leaves, 100 g tomato paste, 250 cc wine, 10 peppercorns, 10 spices, salt)

Break up the beef bones and blanch. Put the butter in the pan. Add the bones and meat. Stir the stove periodically. Add the vegetables. Saute the meat and vegetables. Add herbs and spices. Add the tomato paste and stir. Add wine and blend. Add cold water and bring to a boil stirring periodically. Close to removing from the stove add salt. Boil on low heat at least 5-6 hours, strain and use.


Soups are a type of food that use stock and, especially in the Turkish cuisine, take first place on the menu, are nutritious, easy on your stomach fluid dishes served in plates and in bowls that are even consumed at breakfast. Soups vary depending on their content, consistency and method for cooking.
The Consistency and Flavor Additives used in Soups
A variety of mixtures are used to add flavor and thickness to soups. These can be sauces as well as cream, milk, butter, flour and eggs. Mixtures vary according to the type and consistency of soup. For soups without good thickness a mixture of flour and butter called beurre manie, meyane in Turkish cuisine and roux in international cuisines is used.
Preparation of Roux Varieties

  • White Roux:
    An equal amount of butter and flour are placed in a pan. The flour is cooked in the butter until the aroma fades away without the flour darkening. It is used as a thickener in white soups and sauces.

  • Yellow Roux:
    An equal amount of butter and flour are placed in a pan. The flour is cooked to a golden color. Used to thicken soups and in sauces.

  • Brown Roux:
    An equal amount of butter and flour are placed in a pan. The flour is cooked to a light brown color. Used to thicken soups and in sauces.

Preparation of Beurre Manie
Used to thicken soups and in sauces and dishes. Butter and flour are mixed together in a bowl to a paste consistency. The mixture is stored in glass jars or suitable containers and used when necessary. As much beurre manie as is necessary is taken out for use. It is added quickly to soup or sauce while stirring constantly.

Preparation of Liaison
Liaison is used in cream soups as a flavor additive. It is prepared with cream, nutmeg and egg yolk. All of the ingredients are placed in a bowl and stirred with a whisk. It is added to the creamy soup shortly before removing from the stove and stirred in quickly. The soup is removed from the stove before boiling. The soup must not boil. (100 gr cream, 1 egg yolk, ½ teaspoon nutmeg).


The Definition and Features of Clear Soups

Clear soups (consommé) are soups with a high nutritional value made from ground meat and game meat, vegetables, spices and cold stock. They are named after the type of ingredients used like chicken consommé and fish consommé.
The garnishes are added later according to the type of soup. When the soups is finished no ingredients are visible in the soup. The flavor, aroma and nutrition are what characterize the soup.

Types of Consommé:

  • Consommé froid (cold consommé)
  • Consommé de volaille (chicken consommé)
  • Consommé de gibier (game meat consommé)
  • Consommé de poisson (fish consommé)
  • Consommé double: More flavorful and sharper than normal consommé. It is prepared in two varieties. Ground beef and a double amount of mire-poix is used, the other ingredients are added like consommé or stock is used. When serving, no solid garnishes are added but liquid garnishes that add distinction to the flavor may be added.
  • Double Consommé’s Garnishes
  • Consommé double au sherry (light red French wine)
  • Consommé double au maderia (dark red French wine)
  • Consommé double al estragen (tarragon)
  • Consommé double au truffles (truffles)
  • Consommé Julienne: Julienne cut vegetables.
  • Consommé Au Ris: Boiled rice.
  • Consommé Brunoise: Brunoise cut vegetables are used as garnish.

Petit marmite Varieties

  • Petit marmite made from chicken
  • Petit marmite made from beef

Bouillon Varieties

  • Beef bouillon
  • Chicken bouillon
  • Fish bouillon
  • Mature beef bouillon (the bouillon is clear because the beef bones are mature)
  • Game meat bouillon

Principles for Preparing Consommé

  • It must be clear.
  • It must be made from low fat meat without tendons.
  • A certain amount of egg white is used for clearness.
  • In order for the ground meat and other foods to permeate into the broth ice should not be used.
  • The garnish should be adjusted well.
  • The waiting process should be done in a double boiler.
  • It should be served in special bowls for consommé.
  • While preparing consommé it should be stirred until the color changes to prevent the egg white from settling to the bottom.
  • It should be strained carefully. The sediment that settles to the bottom should not be stirred up.

Principles for Preparing to Serve

  • To serve consommé bowls with two handles are used
  • It is named according to the garnishes. (chopped parsley, steamed vegetables, meats, meatballs, etc.).

CONSOMME (Clear broth)
4 servings (200 gr ground beef, 1 egg white, 1 lt cold white stock, 100 gr vegetables (onion, carrot, celery, leek or a bouquet of garnishes), 3–4 peppercorns, 2 sprigs of herbs, 1 bay leaf, 200 gr ice, 1 bunch parsley stems, a small amount of grated nutmeg, salt, 1 clove of garlic).

Cream soups are one of the varieties of soups that are popular in international kitchens. They have an important place in the menu. They are nutritional, tasty and thick soups. The thickness is achieved by using flour cooked in butter (roux). If the soup is not the desired thickness beure manie is used. When there is no time to prepare beure manie starch dissolved in cold water is used. The most important feature of cream soups is that liaison is used.

Principles for Making Cream Soup

  • Roux must be light colored.
  • The butter used in cream soup should not be burned.
  • Depending on the type of soup, it should be fried before mire-poix is added.
  • Flour to which butter is added should be fried without getting brown.
  • The stock added to the soup should be cold.
  • After adding stock the soup should be stirred until it boils.
  • If the soup is thick stock should be added, if it is runny beurre manie should be added.
  • The vegetables should not be crushed while straining the soup.
  • The ingredient that gives the soup its name should be added in boiled form to the strained soup.
  • A bit of butter should be added to the soup before boiling.
  • Liaison should be added when the soup has boiled again and after adding it the soup should not be boiled again.
  • Cream soups must always be hot, white and thick. There should be no smell of egg
  • They must be served hot.


4 servings (200 gr white mire-poix, 50 gr butter margarine or cooking oil, 50 gr flour, 1 lt white stock, 1 lt vegetable stock, salt, white pepper, liaison, 100 gr cream, 1 egg yolk, grated nutmeg. To prepare creamy mushroom soup use 150 gr mushrooms, to prepare creamy chicken soup use 200 gr breast meat. Stir the white stock and boil for 30 min. Strain the vegetables without crushing them. Check the taste and add salt if needed.

Add the garnish (chicken or mushroom) to the soup in measured amounts. Add white pepper. Prepare liaison. First add a few spoons of the soup to the Liaison to equal the temperature. Thus you will prevent it from separating. Stir thoroughly and remove from the stove before boiling. If it boils the egg and cream will separate.


Vegetable soups are generally clear in appearance and contain vegetables that have been chopped according to international methods. Since they are made from vegetables and stock they are rich in protein, minerals and vitamins.


  • Vegetables in season and chopped according to international methods should be used.
  • Vegetable soups are made with clear broth. When serving an equal amount of broth and vegetable should be in the serving bowl.
  • The vegetables should be added in the order that they cook in.
  • The shapes and features of the vegetables should not be distorted while cooking.
  • Vegetables should be lightly cooked in oil without overcooking.
  • The amounts of the vegetables in the soup should be proportionate to each other. One kind of vegetable should not be more than another.
  • The flavor of one vegetable should not be more prominent than another in the soup.
  • The quality of the soup should not be lost by thickening with vegetables or stock.
  • The soup plate or bowl should not be filled too much.
  • Parsley or grated cheese should not be used excessively as a garnish.
  • Must be served hot.

Pureed Soups

A thick soup that is made by cooking, pureeing and straining starchy vegetables. Since it is made from starchy vegetables the soup is thick. Any stock can be used to make pureed soups. When serving, croutons or mint, thyme and red pepper in melted butter can be used as garnish.

Principles for Making Pureed Soups

  • The stock and vegetables used in pureed soups must be well cooked.
  • After boiling the cover should not be placed completely on the pot. It will overflow because the foods are starchy.
  • After boiling it should be stirred from time to time.
  • Before serving pureed soups the thickness and flavor should be tested.
  • Croutons should be used for pureed soups.
  • Parsley should be used for decoration.
  • Depending on the type of soup, lightly fried salami or sausage can be used.
  • The soup plate or bowl should not be filled to high and served hot with garnishes.


6 servings (50 gr oil (margarine, butter or cooking oil), 50 gr onion, 50 gr white mire poix, 2 lt white stock, 200 gr potato, lentil, carrot, peas, salt, black pepper, parsley, 25 gr butter, crouton) Prepare the stock.

Thaw out the previously prepared stock. After cleaning and sorting the vegetables chop them mirepoix. Put the pot on the stove, add butter and the ingredients and fry. Add the stock. Leave to boil. After it has boiled crush the mixture. Process in a press, strainer or processor and strain. Return to the stove and add salt and butter. Serve hot.


Sauce is a liquid or semi solid food that is served with food or used in the preparation of food. Generally it adds to the flavor, moisture and appearance of food. Joseph Favre defines sauce as “a flavorful substance that is liquid or gelatinous which can be thickened by adding flour, starch, egg yolk or blood”.

The prerequisites for a good sauce

  • The professional expertise of the chef
  • Sufficient ingredients of top quality
  • Tasty clean flavored rich meat broths
  • Fresh herbs
  • Good quality wines and liquors

The Features of a Good Sauce:

  • The color is appetizing and no oil is visible.
  • The consistency is light.
  • The flavor is prominent but not the taste of spices.

These are known for their deep thick aroma resulting from the cooking of sharp aroma particles of tasty vegetables and tomato puree and the browning of protein content materials like meat and bones.

Where Brown Sauces Are Used/strong>
Brown sauces are generally served with sautéed meat but can also be used to compliment ho egg dishes, hot appetizers, boiled vegetables, lettuce, celery, Belgian succor and other vegetables.

Main Brown Sauces
Demi-glace, game demi-glace, yoğun dana jus

Demi-glace sos
Made by boiling equal amounts of veal or beef broth and espagnole ( one of the 5 classic sauces of French cuisine) and reducing the liquid by half. The result is a thick rich sauce. Although these types of sauces are suitable for meat and other rich food they are also used as a base for rich sauces and soups. Demi-glace requires a lot of effort therefore it is popular to use beef broth and in fact "semi-glace" versions instead. Although many chefs still insist on making their own demi-glace sauces. To avoid the unique effort for making this sauce many professional kitchens have developed concentrations or mixtures to use.

The flavor of white sauce is based on the natural flavor of the broth base or boiling fluid that has been used. The prerequisite for making white sauces is an outstanding pure aroma broth. White sauces are generally classified as garnishes. It is very important to select the right broth to compliment the dish that the sauce will be served with.

Where White Sauces Are Used
Used for meat dishes in which meat broth must be used, in poultry dishes where chicken broth must be used, fish and seafood dishes where fish broth must be used and macaroni, vegetable and egg dishes where milk must be used.

Basic White Sauces
Veal velouté, chicken velouté, fish velouté, bechamel sauce

Velouté Sauce
Velouté sauce is one of the 5 sauces of the French cuisine along with béchamel, espanole and allemande. It is made by thickening a broth made with the uncooked bones of chicken, beef or fish by adding blond roux. The ingredients of Velouté sauce are butter, flour, broth, salt and pepper for the roux. Generally the sauce is named after the broth that is used. Velouté sauces are used as a base for other sauces.

  • Allemande:
    Chicken velouté, lemon juice, egg yolk and cream

  • Suprême sauce:
    Chicken velouté, lemon juice, egg yolk and cream

  • Bercy sauce:
    Fish velouté, pearl onion, white wine

The emulsion of warm whisked egg yolk and plain cooking oil.

The Uses for Solid Fat Sauces
Since egg yolks have a high level of cholesterol and solid oil contains a lot of calories, cholesterol and fat, these types of sauces should generally be served with low fat food such as steamed vegetables, steamed fish or grilled meat.

Basic Solid Fat Sauces
Hollandaise sauce, Bernaise sauce and sauce with solid fat

With lovely colors and fruity, acidy flavors, tomato sauces are very appetizing.

Basic Tomato Sauces
The tomatoes that are used for these sauces must be completed matured, meaty tomatoes or small oval Italian cherry tomatoes should be selected. In macaroni and noodle dishes it is served with vegetables, used in cook by order tomato soups and added to brown sauce varieties.

These are oil based cold sauces.

  • •Clear oil sauces:
    Ideal for sauces with herbs, spices and evaporating oils used as salad dressings and as marinade for cooked vegetables, mushrooms, fish or seafood.

  • •Mayonnaise Based Sauces:
    A homogenous emulsion of whisked egg yolk and vegetable oils.

Special sauces are a group that is not derived from the basic sauces and used hot or cold. Most of these sauces are spicy in contrast to the food they are served with. Additionally in order to complete the food they accentuate the missing flavor components.

These sauces are used as seasoning. For example; ketchup, pepper sauce, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, mango chutney, sweet and sour sauce, etc.