The materials that we take into our bodies to achieve the structure, development and energy of our bodies are called nutrients. Basic Nutrients are divided into sections under proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals (salts) and water. Of these, proteins are known as nutrients and are especially necessary during the development period. However adults also need a certain amount of nutrients every day. The cells in a body are constantly dying and the elements that form them need to be replaced. Because fats and carbohydrates supply the energy needed for an organism to function they can be compared to fuel. Healthy nutrition is what provides the right amount of fuel and nutrients to us in the necessary amount, form and correlation.

A single nutrient does not provide all that is necessary. A varied diet assures healthy nutrition. This is how a deficiency in one element is compensated by the surplus of another. Minerals are as important as water in the body structure and function. The nutrients we eat are broken down into tiny pieces during digestion and combine into our blood. The breaking down of proteins into amino acids, fats into fatty acids and glycerin, carbohydrates into mono-saccharides and then their combining to form the complex nutrients that our body needs and the energy cycle is called metabolism. Thanks to the functioning of this metabolism sugars and fats can take each other’s place in the nutrition diet and our bodies can restructure them. There are some nutrients that must be in the food we eat because our bodies cannot produce them.

Among these are amino acids, vitamins and minerals (various salts, elements). Our bodies have a certain buffering capacity and the ability to store nutrients as fat and sugar in our bodies. A healthy person can use these stored nutrients to stay alive for quite some time without any new fuel supplies. An insufficient intake of the necessary nutrients can cause a variety of diseases which have unique symptoms. The nutritional value of nutrients depends on the amount and type of basic nutrition in them.

The fuel value of nutrients is expressed as the energy that is expended during metabolism. The unit that is used for this is calories. A calorie: (symbol cal), is the amount of energy that is necessary in atmospheric pressure to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C. Since 1925, calories have been determined by the term joule. As a unit of energy 1 kilo calorie is used. (1 calorie is 4184 joules) The amount of energy or calories required for an adult in one day is 2000–2600 kilo calories.

In order to form the basis for a balanced healthy diet the four basic food group concept has been developed:

  • Milk and Dairy Products
  • Meat, fish and poultry
  • Vegetables and fruits
  • Grains (bread, legumes, etc.)
  • Fats, sugar, alcohol (a fifth group for people who want to increase their calorie consumption

If you select your food from the first four groups at the recommended daily amounts you will have a balanced, healthy diet.

Milk and dairy products (any kind of cheese, yoghurt, ice cream, etc.) provide protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals. The dairy products, other than butter, are a source of calcium which is an important nutrient for the growth and care of bones. Milk contains vitamin D in various amounts depending on whether it is whole milk, 2% milk or 1% milk and an average adult needs 2 glasses a day. Milk is an essential source of calcium. Pregnant women, breastfeeding women and children require more than two glasses.

The meat group includes all meat, poultry, fish and some special vegetable products. This group is rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals which are important in the development and protection of body tissues. At least 120-180 gr of meat or its equivalent should be consumed every day.


Fruits and vegetables provide necessary vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates as well as fiber. Most of the fiber in apples and oranges, unprocessed oatmeal products, haricot beans, peas and lentils is soluble fiber. Soluble fiber absorbs water as it passes through our digestive system. Thus is produces larger and softer stool by acting as a sponge.

Insoluble fiber passes through your body quickly and maintains regularity in bodily functions such as bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in unprocessed wheat products and many vegetables. Recently soluble fiber has become famous for its probable effect on helping to regulate or balance cholesterol production. Among the good soluble fiber sources are oatmeal products, haricot beans, peas, lentils, apples and citrus fruit. Vegetables like peas and beans contain a high amount of protein. This protein type has a lower biological quality compared to that of eggs or meat and in order for it to make up a whole protein the same meal must include some grains like corn, wheat or rice. Four or more portions of fruits and vegetables must be consumed each day.

Bread and grain products like legumes are mostly comprised of complex carbohydrates. They also provide a healthy dose of vitamins, minerals and fiber. In “enriched” flour there are a number of vitamins that are lost during the grinding of the grains. These types of food include bread with all kinds of grains like wheat, corn, rice, oatmeal and barley. Four or more portions of grains should be consumed every day.

Due to the fact that it has no nutrient value water is generally not mentioned in diet discussions. Your body can survive for weeks without food but starts dying in a day without water. Your body can only store a certain amount of water because water is used constantly in the function of every cell. The mechanisms that regulate your thirst and the amount of urine that is produced always function to keep the amount of water in your body’s tissues within a very narrow margin. Nutrients, waste materials, antibodies, hormones and other elements enter and leave the body via water. Water is also a required part of the digestive process, it helps regulate body heat and remove wastes.

Water is contained in everything you drink and to a certain extent what you eat. It is not generally difficult to understand whether or not you have drunk water. Thirst is a sign of the amount of water you need.



Fats are the most important source for the energy needed by the human body. There are 9 calories per gram of fat. In each gram of the other calorie sources which are carbohydrates and proteins there are 4 calories and in one gram of alcohol there are 7 calories. Our bodies store the fat we intake through nutrition (the body’s capacity to store fat is unlimited) and use this fat when we need energy. Fats also enable the absorption of vitamins that dissolve in fat like A, D, E and K and protect the body temperature and organs from outside impacts.
However, excess fat in the body may cause obesity, heart disease and cancer. The recommended intake of fat should be an amount that fulfills 25-35% of the calories needed in a day.

When saturated fats, which are generally found in animal based foods, are consumed excessively they cause the cholesterol level to rise and pose a risk for heart disease, cancer and obesity. The connections of all the carbons that comprise the fatty acid chain in the saturated fat acids and which are all outside of the chain have been bonded with hydrogen.Saturated fats are in meat, whole fat dairy products (cheese, milk and ice cream), the skin of poultry and egg yolks. Vegetable based foods such as coconut, date oil and cocoa are also rich in saturated fats.

Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. However even olive oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, soy oil and peanut oil contain small amounts of saturated fat. Saturated fats cause both the total cholesterol in the body and LDL (low density cholesterol) which is known as bad cholesterol to be high. This increases the risk of heart disease. It is recommended that only 7% at the most of the total calorie intake should come from saturated fats. For example a person consuming daily calories can consume 140 calories at the most from saturated fats. If it is considered that there are 9 calories in every gram of fat the amount of saturated fat consumed in one day should be 15-16 gr.


Unsaturated fats are the best source for the required fatty acids that the body needs. They are in liquid form in room temperature and most of them are plant based. One or more ties of the carbons in unsaturated fats are not bonded with hydrogen.
Unsaturated fats are divided into two categories which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats can be synthesized in the human body. It is recommended that monounsaturated fats be consumed in an amount that fulfills maximum15% of the daily calorie requirement and polyunsaturated fats be consumed to fulfill a maximum of 10% of the daily calorie requirement.

Monounsaturated fat oils are olive oil and canola oil and nuts with shells (hazelnut, peanut, walnut), nut with shells oil (peanut and almond oils) and avocados contain a large amount of unsaturated fat. While these fats remain liquid at room temperature they gradually harden in the refrigerator. As in the polyunsaturated fats, they are not susceptible to oxidation. Replacing saturated fats with monounsaturated fats will not only keep HDL cholesterol from getting low it will lower both total and LDL cholesterol.

Polyunsaturated fats: A reduction in LDL can be achieved by replacing saturated fat acids with polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated fats have two main groups called omega–3 and omega–6 fatty acids. Foods that are rich in Omega–6 fatty acids (major omega–6 fatty acid is Lineolic Acid) are vegetable oils like corn oil, sunflower oil and soy oil. The lineolic acid in the body is metabolized to arachidoriic acid and a portion of it is transformed to gamma lineolic acid. Since linoleic acid is susceptible to free radical oxidation in the body the amount of lineolic acid intake should not exceed 10% of the total calories.

The major fatty acid of Omega–3 fatty acids is Alfa Lineolic Acid. Alfa lineolic acid metabolizes in the body to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are found plentifully in cold water fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna, etc.). The source of this acid in fish is the sea weed they eat. Omega–3 fatty acids decrease triglyceride levels and are very effective in preventing triglyceride rises after meals. This effect may be beneficial in the treatment of combined hyperlepidemia with elevated LDL and VLDL. Their heart protecting effect is also evident in a tendency towards coagulation and reducing arrhythmia and sudden death. Deaths connected to chronic health disease have been found to be lower in consumers of Omega–3 fatty acids. According to studies the dose of omega -3 fatty acid found to be effective is from 850 mg to1.5 gr. A portion of fish a day provides nearly 900 mg of omega-3 fatty acid. Therefore it is recommended that fish is eaten at least 2 times a week (300 g).

There are also studies that show another omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-lineolic acid, reduces MI risk. This is why omega-3 fatty acids should be increased in your diet. Other than fatty sea fish, Omega-3 can also be found in some plants, flaxseed and oil, canola oil, soy oil and hazelnut oil. It is beneficial to eat 5-6 hazelnuts a day. However consumption in excessive amounts to the point of increasing total calories and omega-6 acids should be avoided.

There is no agreement yet on how much Omega–6 and Omega–3 fatty acids should be consumed. Lately it has been said that the Omega–6/Omega–3 ratio to be consumed in a diet should be 3/1. However there are studies that say it should be 1/1. It would be logical to increase the amount of omega-3 that is consumed and limit omega-6.

These are the solid fats that are created by subjecting plant based liquid oils to hydrogenation under high pressure. It is found in very few natural foods. Despite trans fats being resistant for a long time they have harmful effects on health. They can cause clogged arteries and the risk of a heart attack like saturated fats. By increasing the amount of bad cholesterol they cause the formation of residue that can clog arteries. There is no information available on how much trans fat is safe. It is important to consume products that contain trans fat carefully and not excessively. Trans fats are the most harmful fats. They not only raise the level of LDL(bad cholesterol) but they also reduce the level of HDL (good cholesterol). It is also thought that trans fats increase the risk of cancer (especially breast cancer).

Margarine, cake, cookies, biscuits, seeds and nuts, chips, salad dressing, fried foods and other fast foods that contain hydrogenated oil. There are also trans fats, although in small amounts, in foods like beef, mutton, milk and butter.


In Turkey 28 types of olives for oil and for table consumption are commonly produced.

  • Black Sea Region:
    They have local names such as “butko”, “görvele”, “marantel-li”, “pastos” and are almost all produced for direct consumption at the dinner table.

  • Marmara Region:
    84% of the product is table olives. They are called “varyeteler gemlik”, “edincik su”, “Karamürsel su”, “samanlı”, “Erdek yağlık”, “beyaz”

  • Aegean Region:
    “Ayvalık”, “gemlike”, “uslu”, “domat”, “çelebi(eşek zeytini)”,

  • Southern Aegean Region:
    “Mememcik”, “Domat”, “Yamalak sarısı”, “erkence”, “tavşan yüreği”, “Manzanilla”

  • Mediterranean:
    “Tavşan yüreği”, “kan zeytini”, “Büyük topak ulak”, “uslu”, “gemlik”

  • Eastern Mediterranean:
    “Sarı ulak”, “Büyük topak ulak”, “halhalı”, “gemlik”,” ayvalık”

  • Southeastern Anatolia:
    “kalembezi”, “eğriburun”, “kan çelebi”, “Kilis yağlık”, “nizip yağlık”, “halhalı”


  • An important substance used in fighting cancer today is shark cartilage. The substance squalene which is derived from shark cartilage is also contained in plentiful amounts in virgin olive oil. Olive oil reduces the risk of cancer by nearly 50%.

  • Cells are protected by the substance Oleiprine, which is found in olive oil.

  • The oil of olives as well as the branches, leaves and resin of olive trees are among the natural ingredients used in pharmaceutical components, it is a natural medication.

  • Because olive oil can penetrate skin follicles it is beneficial in both internal and external tissue damage or irritations and infections.

  • It affects the digestive system; olive oil coats the stomach with a protective layer to reduce stomach acids.

  • It is beneficial in protecting against gastritis and ulcers. Due to its ease of digestion olive oil helps nutrients be better absorbed by the intestines and regulates the function of the intestines.

  • By adapting to the contractions and excretions of the gall bladder, olive oil reduces the risk of gall bladder stones.

  • 1-2 tablespoons of olive oil consumed before breakfast helps relieve simple chronic constipation.

  • With vitamin E, which is also found in breast milk and oleic acid olive oil contributes to normal bone development. Since it supports the development of the baby’s brain and general nervous system both while in the mother’s womb and after it is born, olive oil is especially beneficial to pregnant and breast feeding mothers.

  • Olive oil delays the effects of aging both in general and on tissue and organs and brain functions.

  • It reduces blood pressure.

  • It helps to reduce the level of blood sugar.

  • It is a heart ally; in contrast to animal based oils, olive oil reduces cholesterol and therefore reduces the risk of heart attacks.

  • Olive oil is a source of health and beauty. It is very beneficial to skin and hair. It nurtures, protects and lubricates skin.

When olive oil is kept cold it solidifies and when it is heated up it becomes liquid without losing quality. Olive oil should be stored away from sunlight, at room temperature and so it won’t be exposed to moisture with its cap closed.


  • Naturel olive oil:
    Naturel olive oil is obtained by using olives fresh from the tree with their original natural quality in a thermal environment; only being subjected to mechanical or physical processes like washing, decantation, centrifuge and filtration to achieve an oil that has the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the products in its own category.

  • Naturel virgin olive oil:
    Suitable for direct consumption, oils with a free fatty acid of the oleic acid type of no more than 0.8 grams per 100 gram,

  • Naturel first olive oil:
    Suitable for direct consumption, oils with a free fatty acid of the oleic acid type of no more than 2.0 grams per 100 gram,

  • Raw olive oil/Refinery:
    Oils with a free fatty acid of the oleic acid type of more than 2.0 per 100 grams or which are not suitable for direct consumption in terms of sensory and characteristic features that are suitable for refinery or technical purpose oils.

  • Refined olive oil:
    Oils which are obtained by refining with methods that do not cause changes in the natural triglyceride structure of raw olive oil and have a free fatty acidity of the oleic acid type of no more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams.

  • Riviera olive oil:
    Oils which are created by combining refined olive oils and ready for direct consumption natural olive oils with a free fatty acidity of the oleic acid type of no more than 1.0 gram per 100 grams.

Olive oil is a type of oil that can be used raw, for cooking and for frying. Contrary to common belief, olive oil can be used in any kind of food, fried dishes, pastries and cakes.


  • Raw pomace oil:
    A type of oil which is obtained by the extraction with solvents or other physical processing of pomace; which has not undergone any re-esterification process, not been combined with any oils or mixtures and which is not suitable for direct consumption but used in refining or technical purposes.

  • Pomace oil (combined pomace oil):
    A type of oil which is comprised of a combination of refined pomace oil and olive oils which are suitable for direct consumption and have a free fatty acidity of the oleic acid type no more than 1.0 gram per 100 grams.

  • Refined pomace oil:
    A type of oil which is obtained by refining with methods that do not cause changes in the natural triglyceride structure of raw pomace oil and have a free fatty acidity of the oleic acid type of no more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams.